The contrast is striking to read “Life-Line” right after reading and reviewing For Us, The Living. Did Heinlein hitchhike over to the Iowa Writers’ Workshop for the 1939 Spring semester? “Life-Line” is a well-structured short story told dramatically, attributes sorely lacking in his trunk novel. How did he make such a quantum leap in writing?

“Life-Line” has a simple plot. Dr. Hugo Pinero invents a device that can give the date of a person’s birth and death. It’s based on the idea that every being exists in time as one long 4th-dimensional organism. Scientists think Pinero is a crackpot. When his machine works and causes havoc with the insurance industry they take him to court to get an injunction from using it. Pinero proposes to the court a scientific test which the judge accepts. One insurance CEO ordered a contract killing on Pinero. But before he dies we see one tear-jerking scene where Pinero tests a young married couple. The wife is pregnant. He refuses to tell the couple their results claiming his machine has become misaligned. He tried to keep them from leaving, but they eventually do and are killed outside his office by a speeding car. The scientists finally admit that Pinero’s technique was real when they find he accurately predicted his own death, and they destroy all the test predictions based on their own lives.

Farah Mendlesohn in her book, The Pleasant Profession of Robert A. Heinlein suggests Heinlein modeled his writing on the movies. I can believe that. The dialog in “Life-Line” feels like MGM films from the mid-1930s. It’s easy to picture Hugo Pinero played by Edward G. Robinson. Robinson sometimes played ethnic characters with accents, and Dr. Pinero has the same bellicose pugnacity that Robinson did in his movies. The gangster Mr. Bidwell of Amalgamated Insurance hired to kill Pinero comes across just like Humphrey Bogart in Kid Gallahad, even though Heinlein gives the gangster character just a couple of lines and a few words of description.

“Life-Line” also has several scenes that also remind me of 1930s movies, and they might be a clue to where Heinlein got his Public Argument writing technique I keep seeing in his stories. The story begins with Pinero arguing with a committee from the Science Academy. Next, he banters around with a group of news reporters. This reminds me of more than one Frank Capra film. Next, we see Pinero argue his case with a judge and lawyer for the insurance companies in court. I can see why he uses the Public Argument technique, it provides drama because it’s often used in movies, especially old movies from the 1930s, ones Heinlein should have seen — and studied.

I know when I first read “Life-Line” because in 1966 I bought a little Ace paperback for 40 cents, The Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein. I got the story again in The Past Through Tomorrow in 1967. It was first collected in Heinlein’s The Man Who Sold the Moon in 1950, but that was the year before I was born. By the way, my Baen Kindle edition of The Man Who Sold the Moon / Orphans of the Sky copy has an important missing section, the one where Bidwell hires the gangster. This time I listened to the Brilliance Audio edition of The Man Who Sold the Moon narrated by Buck Schirner — he did a fantastic job with 1930s-style voicing and accents.

To check the August 1939 Astounding edition to the current edition, I listened to the audio version while eye-reading a digital scan of the magazine. For the most part, the story was the same. Heinlein tweaked a few paragraphs to read better, and he changed one date from 1939 to 1951. I’ll try to use this comparison technique whenever I can. I wished I had used it on the few stories I’ve already reviewed.

The first time I read “Life-Line” I didn’t like the story. In fact, I remember being disappointed. I was used to Heinlein juveniles from Scribners and Starship Troopers and Stranger in a Strange Land from Putnam. And I just didn’t like the idea of a machine that predicts when people would die — it didn’t seem scientific. However, over the years, whenever I’ve reread “Life-Line” the story has gotten better and better. And when I listened to the audio version, with the dramatic reading, I’ve been very impressed with how well-written the story is, and how dramatic Heinlein made the scenes. I also thought the dialog was impressive too because it reminded me of MGM movie dialog. “Life-Line” isn’t James Joyce or even Ernest Hemingway, but it’s pretty damn good 1939 pulp fiction.

I just discovered there’s a student film version of “Life-Line.” It’s just now being released. This suggests the story still has impact and validity. That’s great.

“Life-Line” shows Heinlein could write. And write better than the average writer for science fiction magazines at the time. I have to wonder how much editing John W. Campbell did on the story. It seems whenever Heinlein isn’t reigned in, he pontificates. “Life-Line” does have a few short infodumps, but they are legit, fitting within the story’s logic.

I can’t tell what kind of impact Heinlein made with Astounding readers with his first story. He came in second in the AnLab poll, to a Lester del Rey story. Campbell did not single Heinlein out for any special praise in the editorial content, although in the AnLab (Oct. 1939) he did say there were three first-published writers in the August issue. I found two readers in the letter columns that mention the story. One wished for more stories like “Life-Line,” and the other said the story was well-written and dramatic and wished it had been novel length.

Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg picked “Life-Line” to include in their The Great SF Stories 1 (1939), but that was decades later. Alexei Panshin was rather hard on the story in Heinlein in Dimension. Of Heinlein’s first two stories, he thought “Misfit” the better of the two, and “Life-Line” wasn’t particularly good. I just read “Misfit,” and disagree. It’s a good story, but I think “Life-Line” is much better. It’s more unified. “Misfit” is a bit episodic.

“Life-Line” is not a favorite in the retrospective anthologies, most editors and readers prefer other Heinlein stories. I’m curious if it holds up with young readers today. It has an average of 3.91 stars out of 5 on Goodreads, with 906 readers rating it. 268 gave it 5 stars, and 338 gave it 4 stars. Not bad.

James Wallace Harris, 9/30/22

12 thoughts on ““Life-Line” by Robert A. Heinlein

  1. I feel that some critics sell “Life-Line” short. Of Heinlein’s early stories (the ones I’ve read), it’s one of those I like best.


  2. P.S. I’ve also noticed that some of Heinlein’s early stories have this old-movie aura, including the colloquial, cracker-barrel dialogue which I might have mentioned earlier. I sometimes find the dialogue distracting, but other times I enjoy it.

    Liked by 1 person

      1. I don’t think I’ve seen that many–I’ve probably seen more from the forties and fifties. In any case, stylistic datedness in a story isn’t always an obstacle to enjoying it.


  3. I really enjoyed Life-Line, when I first read it over forty years ago and again this morning.
    I’m also a big fan of those old movies, especially the ones produced by MGM and Warner Bros. Unfortunately, most major studios relegated science fiction to B status, even during the 1950s boom (Forbidden Planet is a wonderful exception). The classic Destination Moon (written by Heinlein, who also consulted during production) was produced independently.
    And I agree that Heinlein’s dialogue mirrors what you see in many movies of the period, especially in the films of Howard Hawks who produced the first (and least faithful) version of JW Campbell’s Who Goes There?

    I wonder which fiction authors influenced his style. I still haven’t read the Heinlein biography you suggested — are any mentioned? He must’ve had his favorites.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Yes, a few of Heinlein’s favorite authors are mentioned. I’ve been meaning to write a blog about them. Among them are Wells, Kipling, Baum, Burroughs, and James Branch Cabell. And I think Cabell might be the most important to Heinlein’s style. I’ve never read anything by him. I tried and just couldn’t get into it. I want to try again.


  4. I really need to read that bio. And I’m embarrassed to admit that I’ve never heard of Cabell. I’ll do a little research.


  5. We did this as a group read on “Classic Science Fiction & Fantasy Short Stories”. It was my second read after first reading it 40 years previous.

    When reading it the second time I noticed how similar Hugo Pinero’s name and personality are, to Hercule Poirot. The character created by Agatha Christie 20’s and featured in the popular PBS series. IMO Hugo Pinero = Hercule Poirot, in a speculative setting.

    Christie might be a hidden author’s influence upon Heinlein. I’m guessing that he read both other mainstream-ish fiction genres, along with SF.


  6. “Agatha Christie 20’s” Correction: in the 1920’s.

    “IMO Hugo Pinero = Hercule Poirot”. With some obvious differences: he (unlike Poirot) is a scientist and inventor. He’s an American, unlike the thoroughly european belgian Poirot.


  7. The story featured the idea of the time-travel causal loop, an idea he would later develop fully in “By His Bootstraps”. Maybe the trunk novel had this?

    One last thing, I will echo that this is one of my favorite stories by him, and has stuck with me through the years. It occupies a special time when the “Golden Age” was just starting.


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