My aim is to review a time travel novel, Time’s Last Gift, by Philip José Farmer, but I need to explain my attitude towards time travel stories before I can pass judgment. I bought Time’s Last Gift because I read on the cover blurb that four scientists from the year 2070 travel back to 12,000 BC to study the Magdalenian culture. Since I’ve recently read a number of books on prehistory that plot appealed to me. I even read a large book just on locating the origin of the people who produced the proto-Indo-European language.
Within Time’s Last Gift, one character, Robert von Billmann is obsessed with finding the people who created the Proto-Indo-Hittite language. If you’re not interested in pre-history or the origins of language you might not want to bother with Time’s Last Gift – unless another factor appeals to you, but I want to wait and mention that after the spoilers warning. Let’s just say that John Gribardson, who was made leader of the expedition at the last minute has a very interesting backstory.
Does Time’s Last Gift stand on its own as a solid story and as a good addition to the time travel theme despite any details related to actual history or literary plot gimmicks? To me, a worthy time travel story has to add something different to the theme, otherwise, it’s just a romance, thriller, or historical novel that jumps around in time.
There have been countless science fiction books about time travel, but for me, I find very few of them worthy of using the theme. Most throw their characters into the past or the future and develop a story about that new setting. What I love is a time travel adventure that also explores the wonder of time and time travel. H. G. Wells set the bar very high with The Time Machine in 1895. I’m not sure any work has ever surpassed it for its sense of wonder.
There are so many time travel stories that Michael Main has created The Internet Time Travel Database. Town & Country Magazine listed their top 35 time travel books but only three of my top favorites make their list. Read This Twice found 92 favorite time travel books, and they do list many of my favorites. About Great Books lists 30-time travel books they think are great, and seven of my favorites are there, but I don’t consider many of those books really time travel stories. But that brings up another issue.
What is time travel? Replay by Ken Grimwood is one of my all-time favorite novels, but does Jeff Winston time travel? He repeats his life over and over. I call such fiction time loop stories. Stories such as The First Fifteen Lives of Harry August by Claire North, and The Midnight Library by Matt Haig are really time loop stories too, which I consider a different theme than time travel stories. I’ve written about it before.
Are such literary classics as The Time Traveler’s Wife, Kindred, Slaughterhouse-Five, A Christmas Carol, and Woman on the Edge of Time really about time travel? Don’t they just use the gimmick of time travel to reveal deep characterization or explore social issues in a clever way? These are great novels, but I don’t really want to lump them into the kind of science fiction novel I’m pointing to. Nor do I want to consider all the novels that use time travel to hook people up romantically.
Real science fiction about time travel should make us think about the nature of time travel. Time’s Last Gift does do this. Time travel has always been plagued by paradoxes, but I believe Farmer has found a neat way around them. If a time traveler goes into the past and changes the future, it’s already happened. Whatever exists now, whether affected by time travel or not, is what is. Speculations about what might be changed are no different from what was changed. If a time traveler shows up in 12,000 BCE there was never a 12,000 BCE without a time traveler. Of course, that means everything that happens is fixed. Or is it? Does this theory about time travel require predestination? It could mean everyone has free will, but whichever way history plays out it only plays out once.
Most of Time’s Last Gift is about living in 12,000 BCE. The four scientists immediately befriend a small tribe of humans and learn their language. John Gribardsun even wears their clothing and hunts with their weapons, although he often uses his rifle when necessary to help feed the tribe. The main conflict of the story deals with the two scientists who are married, Rachel and Drummond Silverstein, and their breakup. Farmer suggests that time travel has a psychological effect, like a larger case of jet lag, and it wears on three of the scientists. Gribardsun seems immune. In fact, he thrives in the past, and his vitality attracts both Rachel and the young women of the tribe. Much of the novel is about whether or not Drummond is out to kill Gribardsun because of jealousy. I didn’t care for this part of the story. It felt like a contrived conflict to move the novel along. However, the story is very readable and kept me reading.
Beyond Here Lie Spoilers
In the 1950s Philip José Farmer wrote some very innovative science fiction stories – “The Lovers,” “The Alley Man,” “Sail On! Sail On!” and others. Then he created two series that were fairly successful, the Riverworld series and The World of Tiers. Farmer won the Hugo award for best novel for the first Riverworld story, To Your Scattered Bodies Go (1971). I loved that novel when it came out because the main character was Sir Richard Francis Burton, the 19th-century explorer, and translator. And I loved the second book, The Fabulous Riverboat (1971) because it featured Mark Twain. I had read biographies of both men and that made me partial to those Farmer’s novels.
Over the decades I have come to feel that using a famous historical person as a character in a novel is a cheat, a way to sell books. But I also consider writing book series as a crutch for writers. For the rest of his life Farmer mostly churned out books for various series, and they were just so-so. He later refined the famous person gimmick by switching to writing about famous fictional characters, and this is where Time’s Last Gift comes in. John Gribardsun is Tarzan. It’s never said within the novel, but I guess it fairly quickly. If you’ve ever read a Tarzan novel, Time’s Last Gift feels like one and could have been Tarzan’s Time Machine.
There’s nothing wrong with book series, they do help writers to pay bills, but each book feels like just another episode in a TV series to me. If you love a series, that’s great. But for me, usually, only stand-alone novels can be great.
I assume Farmer didn’t use the name Tarzan in the book because of being sued by the Edgar Rice Burroughs estate, but ISFDB even lists Time’s Last Gift among the Tarzan novels. Philip José Farmer wasn’t the only writer to continue the character. More importantly, it’s part of Farmer’s Wold Newton series where he brings many famous characters from literature into the real world. If you really like this kind of publishing gimmick, then Time’s Last Gift might excite you.
I find the Wold Newton idea fascinating in conception, but lackluster in execution. It capitalizes on the readers’ love of famous books and characters and I consider that exploitation. Heinlein did the same thing in his later books bringing back his own favorite characters and tieing them into his favorite fictional worlds. The idea is neat, but again, the execution was horrible.
As a time travel novel, Time’s Last Gift is mediocre – readable and somewhat interesting. The plot moves along well enough. The John Gribardsun character is appealing but his adventures back in 12,000 BCE aren’t that significant. If you enjoy the idea that it’s an alternate origin story for Tarzan, and Farmer makes him immortal, then you might enjoy the book more.
I judge time travel stories by how creative they are at dealing with time travel. For example, Heinlein’s “All You Zombies—” uses time travel and gender reassignment in a unique way. David Gerrold uses The Man Who Folded Himself to allow a time traveler to really get to know himself. Jack Finney in Time and Again used historical photographs to enhance his novel. Kurt Vonnegut combined memoir and fiction brilliantly. Connie Willis has explored both drama and comedy in her time travel novels. Of course, Wells illustrated both evolution and cosmology to his 19th-century readers. Wells inspired the Dying Earth genre and the idea that humanity will spin off different new species. Olaf Stapledon ran away with that idea with his novel Last and First Men.
With time travel stories, writers need to go big or go home. Philip José Farmer knew this. This is why he tacked on the Wold Newton afterward in a 1977 later edition. If you think Wold Newton is cool, then that might make Time’s Last Gift a good time travel story. If not, you might want to pass on it.
Here's a list of my favorite time travel stories. 1895 - THE TIME MACHINE by H. G. Wells 1934 - "Twilight" by John W. Campbell 1935 - "Night" by John W. Campbell 1941 - "Time Wants a Skeleton" by Ross Rocklynne 1941 - "By His Bootstraps" by Robert A. Heinlein 1943 - "Mimsy Were the Borogoves" by Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore 1946 - "Vintage Season" by Henry Kuttner and C. L. Moore 1951 - "I'm Scared" by Jack Finney 1952 - "A Sound of Thunder" by Ray Bradbury 1952 - "Hobson's Choice" by Alfred Bester 1953 - "Who's Cribbing" by Jack Lewis 1956 - "A Gun for Dinosaur" by L. Sprague de Camp 1956 - "The Man Who Came Early" by Poul Anderson 1957 - THE DOOR INTO SUMMER by Robert A. Heinlein 1957 - "Soldier from Tomorrow" by Harlan Ellison 1958 - THE TIME TRADERS by Andre Norton 1958 - "Poor Little Warrior!" by Brian Aldiss 1958 - "The Ugly Little Boy by Isaac Asimov 1958 - "The Men Who Murdered Mohammed" by Alfred Bester 1959 - "All You Zombies---" by Robert A. Heinlein 1964 - FARNHAM'S FREEHOLD by Robert A. Heinlein 1964 - "When Time Was New" by Robert F. Young 1965 - "Traveller's Rest" by David I. Masson 1966 - "Behold the Man" by Michael Moorcock and BEHOLD THE MAN (1969) 1967 - "Hawksbill Station" by Robert Silverberg 1968 - THE LAST STARSHIP FROM EARTH by John Boyd 1969 - SLAUGHTERHOUSE-FIVE by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. 1970 - TIME AND AGAIN by Jack Finney 1970 - THE YEAR OF THE QUIET SUN by Wilson Tucker 1971 - DINOSAUR BEACH by Keith Laumer 1973 - THE MAN WHO FOLDED HIMSELF by David Gerrold 1976 - "The Hertford Manuscript" by Richard Cowper 1967 - "Infinite Summer" by Christopher Priest 1980 - TIMESCAPE by Gregory Benford 1982 - "Firewatch" by Connie Willis 1985 - "Sailing to Byzantium" by Robert Silverberg 1988 - "Ripples in the Dirac Sea" by Geoffrey A. Landis 1992 - DOOMSDAY BOOK by Connie Willis 1995 - THE TIME SHIPS by Stephen Baxter 1995 - FROM TIME TO TIME by Jack Finney 1998 - TO SAY NOTHING OF THE DOG by Connie Willis 2003 - THE TIME TRAVELER'S WIFE by Audrey Niffenegger
Time Travel Anthologies
- The Best Time Travel Stories of All Time (2003) edited by Barry N. Malzberg
- The Best Time Travel Stories of the 20th Century (2005) edited by Harry Turtledove and Martin H. Greenberg (Kindle)
- The Mammoth Book of Time Travel SF (2013) edited by Mike Ashley (Kindle)
- The Time Travel MEGAPACK (2013) (Kindle)
- The Time Traveler’s Almanac (2014) edited by Ann and Jeff VanderMeer (Kindle)
The Mammoth Book of Time Travel SF and The Time Travel MEGAPACK is currently 99 cents at Amazon for the Kindle edition.
James Wallace Harris, 7/30/22